The development of soil structure and its effects on crop growth are described.
Degradation of soil structure reduces seedling emergence, restricts entry and movement of air and water into and through the soil, increases the risk of erosion, and reduces crop yields.
The effects of soil compaction and weakened aggregation are considered.
Soil structure quality in British Columbia, the Prairie Provinces, Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and P.E.I. is described.
Measures to improve the structure of Canada's soils are outlined. These measures include conservation tillage, growing forages in rotations, crop residue management, continuous cropping, erosion control, and installing sub-surface drainage systems.